From the Admin panel Please go to Settings => Reading, there should be Front page displays options.
Please make sure Front page displays is there while activating WordPress default theme like Twenty Sixteen, Twenty Fifteen eg https://wordpress.org/themes/twentysixteen/.
If there is no Front page displays, there must be something wrong in your WordPress or installed plugins.
Again one last thing, please make sure that you have added some pages. For adding page please go to Pages => Add New from the admin panel and add pages, we would like to suggest you to add at-least two pages lets say ‘Front page’ and ‘Blog Page’ for front page and blog page. Without adding any pages “Static Front Page” option not display in customizer and in “Settings => Reading”
Can you please do that and let us know if this solve your problem?
Please don’t worry, If you have any confusion in doing these things, please let us know we will do that by ourselves and find out the actual cause of the problem. Waiting for your reply.